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Translations

 

Translations languages 

 

Language groups

Languages


Eastern Group

Russian language is a literary language, which was formed as a result of the transitional dialects in Moscow and its suburbs, which attracted people from south, south- east and the north. It displayed as a result on the Moscow dialect, displacing some features of the latter, as well as approval by the Church Slavonic literary language.

Ukrainian language before the 1917 revolution was called Little Russian, it had three main dialects: northern, southeastern, southwestern, and its literary language began to form from the XIV century,
but a modern literary language began its existence since the end of the XVIII century on the basis of Podneprovskiy dialects of southeastern jargon; writing system of the Ukrainian language was based on the Cyrillic alphabet in its variations during the reign of Peter I.

Writing Belarusian language has its origins from the XIV century on the basis of Cyrillic alphabet. But the Belarusian language dialects – is northeast and southwest, literary language was formed on the basis of middle Belarussian dialects. 

 

 

Russian
Ukrainian
Belorussian


Western Group

Czech writing system is based on the Latin alphabet; ancient monuments were from the XIII century.

Writing Slovak and Polish systems are also based on the Latin alphabet. The most ancient monuments are of the XIV century.

 

 

Polish
Czech
Slovak


German subgroup

Standard English was established in the XVI century based on the London dialect, written system based on the Latin alphabet (unchanged). English has become the language of international importance.

Writing system of Dutch with the Flemish language was based on Latin. For example, in South Africa still live settlers from Holland, who speak a variety of Dutch.

German literary language was formed on the basis south German dialects, but with many features of the northern dialects. Writing German language is based on the Latin alphabet in two varieties: a gothic and an antique; German became one of the major languages ​​of the world.

 

 

English
German
Dutch


Romance group

French literary language was based on the dialect of the Ile-de-France with the center in Paris to the XVI century, but French dialects took their origin in the Middle Ages as a result of crossbreeding of folk (vulgar) Latin of conquerors of Rome and the Gallic language.

Italian literary language was formed on the basis of the Tuscan dialect. Writing system is based on the Latin alphabet; historically it became the first national language in Europe.

Spanish language has developed in Europe by crossing popular (vulgar) Latin languages ​​with the Roman province; Spanish writing system based on the Latin alphabet.

Romanian language was formed on the basis of the Latin language and the Roman province languages. Writing system of the Romanian language was based on the Latin alphabet.

Moldovan is a variation of the Romanian language and its script was based on the Russian alphabet.

 

 

Spanish
Italian
French
Portuguese
Romanian (Moldovan)


Southern Group

Bulgarian language was founded in the process of communication of Slavic dialects with Kama Bulgars, as a result, and got its name. Its writing system has been founded on the basis of the Cyrillic alphabet. Most ancient architectural structures are known since X c. BC

Writing Serbian language was based on the Cyrillic alphabet. Writing system of the Croatian language was based on the Latin.

Slovenian language and its script are based on the Latin alphabet.

 

 

Bulgarian

Macedonian

Serbian

Croatian

Slovenian


North German group

Writing Danish based on the Latin alphabet, it served as a literary language for Norway until the end of the XIX century.

Writing Swedish language that also based on the Latin alphabet.

Writing Norwegian also based on the Latin alphabet, it was originally Danish, because literary language for people in Norway until the end of the XIX century was Danish.

 

 

Danish

Swedish

Norwegian


Italic group

Latin was the official literary language in the era of the republic of Rome and the Roman Empire. Latin is the language of rich literary, lyrical, dramatic, epic texts. The first description of the Latin language had Varro in I c. BC.

 

 

Latin


Baltic subgroup

Writing Lithuanian language based on the Latin alphabet in the Latvian language script was based on the Latin alphabet.

 

 

Lithuanian

Latvian


Indo-Aryan group

Indian group (Indo-Aryan) combines several varieties of the new Indian language: Urdu – the national language of Pakistan, and it is based on the Arabic alphabet and has its writing, Hindi is the official language of India – is based on the old Indian Devanagari.

 

 

Hindi

Urdu

Bengali


Iranian group
– contains more than 10 languages, most of which are close to the Indian group, and both generators Jordanian or Aryan group.

Writing Persian language is based on the Arabic alphabet, Dari, for example, the literary language of Afghanistan, along with Pashto language. Pashto language still wore two names (Afghan, Pashto).

Persian (Farsi)

Tajik

Dari ( Farsi - Kabuli )

Armenian

Romaic


Semitic subgroup

Arabic is the language of international cult of Islam, besides the classical Arabic language there are regional varieties of the language, such as Sudanese, Egyptian, Syrian, etc. Writing is based on the Arabic alphabet.

 

 

Arabic


South group Kartvelian subgroup

Writing in the Georgian alphabet began in V c. BC

 

 

Georgian


Finnic group

Writing Finnish language based on the Latin alphabet.

Writing Estonian language based on the Latin alphabet.

 

 

Finnish

Estonian


Western Group Abkhaz subgroup

Abkhaz is the language of its writings, writing has its origin before 1954 based on the Georgian alphabet, in present time, it is based on the Russian alphabet.

 

 

Abkhazian


Ugric subgroup

Writing Hungarian language was based on Latin.

 

 

Hungarian


Northwestern (Kipchak) group

Kazakh

Kyrgyz


Southwestern (Oguz) group

Turkish previously called Ottoman, its writing has its origin in 1929, based on the Latin alphabet, up to these years, it based few centuries on the Arabic language.

 

 

Azerbaijani

Turkish

Turkmen

Southeast Group

Uzbek


Eastern Group

Chinese language – the first language of the number of speaking population in the world. Chinese language has a number of dialect groups; they are usually distinguished by geography Literary Chinese on the basis of the northern dialect, which is a dialect of Beijing.

 

 

Chinese

Vietnamese


Unclassified:

Japanese writing based on Chinese characters of VIII c. BC.

 The first monuments in China were based on Chinese characters dated  IV c. BC.

 

 

Hebrew

Japanese

Korean

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